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  1. Click on one of the letters below to get to the word you're looking for. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V X A Abacus The upper member of a capital Acropolis Fortified hilltop. Citadel of a city Acroterion (acroterium) Statues or ornaments at the apex and inner corners of a pediment Adyton Inner sanctuary of a temple Aegis Cuirass or shield with Gorgon’s head and ring of snakes Agora Public square or market-place Alytarch An official charged with producing games in honour of the emperor Amazonomachia Combat between Greeks and Amazons Ambo Pulpit in a Christian basilica; facing pulpits in a church from which the epistle and gospel were read Amphitheatre An elliptical or circular space surrounded by seats arranged in tiers; used by the Romans for gladiatorial contests Amphora Two-handled container for wine or water Analemma Supporting wall at the side of a theatre Anastylosis Reconstruction Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu) from the poetic Greek, ‘the land of the rising sun’, ‘the East’, the land that today makes up the Asiatic part of Turkey Andron Men’s apartment, banqueting-hall Anta Projecting pilasters ending the lateral walls of the ceila of a Greek temple Antefix Ornament on the eave or cornice of a building; a feature used to hide the end of the tiles Athemion Flower ornament Apotropaion A protective symbol to turn away evil Apse A semicircular recess in a wall, especially in a church or in a Roman law-court Architrave A lintel or main beam resting on columns. The lowest member of the entablature. The same as an Epistyle. Arcosolium Burial niche Ashlar (Masonry) square cut stones and masonry constructed of these Astragal A moulding at the top or base of a column Atlantes Columns in the form of male figures Atrium The court of a Roman house, roofed at the sides, but exposed to the sky in the centre; the entrance to a Byzantine church Back to Top B Baetyl A sacred meteoric stone Ballista War machine which catapulted large stones; used to break down defensive walls Bas-relief Low relief sculpture on a marble or stone slab Basilica A Roman public hall; a building with a central hall and side halls which were lower in height; a Christian church of this type Bema Rostrum or a raised section of the chancel of a Byzantine church Boule City council Bouleuterion Meeting-place of the Boule, the legislative council of a city. The city hall Buchranium Sculptured ox skull, usually garlanded Back to Top C Cadticeus The wand carried by Mercury, usually represented with two snakes twined around it Caique Small wooden trading-vessel frequently found in Greek and Eastern Mediterranean waters Cantharus Drinking-cup with two vertical handles Capital The topmost part of column Caryatid Column in the form of a female figure Cavea The auditorium of a theatre; name derived from the tact that originally it was dug out of a hill Cella The great hall of a temple which contained the cult statue Chiton A tunic worn short by men and long by women Chlamys Light cloak worn by ephebes Chthonic Dwelling in or under the ground Cippus A small column, sometimes without a base or capital, bearing an inscription. Used as a landmark or a funeral monument. Clepsydra A water-clock Colonnade (See also stoa and portico), a row of columns which supports an entablature Columnae caelatae Sculptured columns Composite capital Corinthian capital with Ionic volutes, which are slightly reduced in size Conventus Provincial court of justice Cornice The upper member of the entablature Crepidoma The stepped platform on which a temple stood Cuneiform Wedge-shaped characters of ancient Persian and Assyrian inscriptions Cuneus Wedge-shaped division in the cavea of a theatre Cybele The ancient mother-goddess of Anatolia. Cyclopean masonry Masonry composed of enourmus, irregular shaped stones laid out without mortar and not in courses. Stones were so large that ancient people who saw them believed that only a Cyclops could have put them into place. Cyclopean Wall A wall composed of cyclopean masonry. Back to Top D Deisis Representation of Christ flanked by the Blessed Virgin and St John Deme A village Demiourgos (demiourgis) A civic magistrate Demos The people of a land or city Dentil Row of small square blocks, part of the decorative series on a cornice Dexiosis Scene Offering of the right hand, e.g. a Commagene king and Hercules at Nemrut Dağı Diadochos Plural: Diadochoi. A successor of Alexander the Great Diazoma A horizontal passage in the cavea of a theatre. Dipteros A temple surrounded by two rows of columns Dormition Scene showing the death of the Virgin Dromos A long narrow entrance to a building, sometimes lined with columns or statues. Passage giving access to a tholos or beehive tomb Back to Top E Egg-and-tongue or egg-and-dart A moulding of alternate eggs and arrowheads Engaged column Partly detached column Entablature The stonework resting on a row of columns, including architrave, frieze and cornice Ephebus Greek youth of 18 or over, usually undergoing training either in the army or at a university Epistyle (Greek), architrave Epistyle Architrave Erotes Figures of Eros, the god of love Exedra Semicircular recess, usually with a seat, in a Classical or Byzantine building Exonarthex In a Byzantine church, a transverse vestibule preceding the façade Back to Top F Fibula A clasp, buckle or brooch Flutes The vertical channels cut into the sides of columns Forum Roman market-place Frieze The middle member of the entablature Back to Top G Gallus Priest of Cybele and Attis who had castrated himself Geison (Greek) cornice Gigantomachia War of or with giants Gymnasiarch Superintendent of the palaestra who paid the trainers, etc Back to Top H Herin Quadrangular pillar usually adorned with an erect phallus and surmounted by a bust Heroon Shrine or temple dedicated to a demigod or deified hero Hieron Temple or sacred enclosure Hierothesion Funerary sanctuary Himation An oblong cloak thrown over the left shoulder and fastened over or under the right Hippodrome A place for horse- or chariot-races Hoplite Heavily armed foot-soldier Hydra Jar for carrying water Hypogeum Underground room or vault Back to Top I Iconostasis Screen bearing icons in a Greek Orthodox church Impluvium Basin in the centre of the atrium of a Roman house which was filled with water from the roof In antis With columns between the antae Insula Detached house or block of houses Isodomic A term applied to masonry laid in courses of equal height Back to Top K Kantharus Wine-cup with two large curving handles, usually associated with Dionysus Karum Assyrian trading colony Katholikos Patriarch of Armenia Kline Couch, bed or bier Komast A reveller; often depicted singing or dancing at or following a symposium Kore Maiden. Archaic female figure Kouros Boy. Archaic male figure Kylix Shallow wine-cup Back to Top L Labrys A double-axe; religious symbol of great antiquity Lekythos A bottle for containing oil Back to Top M Macellum Provision market where flesh, fish and vegetables were sold Maenad Bacchante. From the Greek Mandorla Almond-shaped aureole which signifies divinity Martyrion Shrine of a martyr Megabyxus Chief priest of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Megale Meter Cybele, the Mother Goddess of Asia Minor Megaron Large hall of a palace or house Metope Plain rectangular panel in a Doric frieze, which was replaced in the Classical period by a sculptured relief Back to Top N Naiskos Cella of modest proportions in a Greek temple Naos A temple or sometimes the cella of a temple Narthex Narrow vestibule along the west side of a church Naumachia A mock naval battle staged in a flooded amphitheatre Neocorus Title borne by a city which possessed a temple dedicated to the imperial cult Nereids The daughters of Nereus, the Old Man of the Sea Nike The personification of victory Nymphaeum Literally, ‘Temple of the Nymphs’, an ornamental fountain with statues Back to Top O Odeum (Odeion) Small building with semicircular seating used for concerts and meetings Oikos A house Oinochoe Wine-jug Omphalos A sacred stone commemorating the centre of the earth where the eagles of Zeus met Opisthodomus The porch at the rear of a temple which was sometimes used to store valuables Orchestra Large circular space occupied by the chorus and actors in Greek theatres Orthostats Upright slabs at the base of a wall Ostothek Funerary urn Back to Top P Palaestra Training area for wrestlers, boxers, etc. Pancration Athletic contest involving wrestling and boxing; everything except biting or gouging of eyes was permitted Parodos Space between the cavea and the stage of a theatre Pediment A low-pitched gable above a portico Pelike Amphora with a wide mouth and pear-shaped outline Peplos A mantle in one piece worn draped by women Periblos A precinct or the circuit around it Periplous A sailing guide Peripteros A temple surrounded by a row of columns Peristasis A row of columns surrounding a temple Peristyle A row or rows of columns surrounding a building or open court Petasus Broad-brimmed hat worn by an ephebe Phiale Saucer or bowl Pilaster, shallow pier or column projecting from a wall Pithos Large earthenware jar used for storing oil, grain, etc. Plinth A square block forming the base of a column Podium A platform, also a low wall or continuous pedestal carrying a colonnade Polos Stiff high hat Portico A stoa or colonnade Portolano Sailing directions Prohedria Special seat in a theatre reserved for an important person Pronaos The porch in front of a temple Propylon Entrance gate to a temenos (plural: propylaia). Proskenion (Latin: Proscaenium), a raised platform in front of the stage-building used by the actors in a Roman theatre Prostylos A building with free-standing columns in a row Prothesis Laying out of a corpse Prutaneis Member of the executive committee of the Boule Prytaneion (Prytanaeum) The administrative building in a city. This contained an altar dedicated to Hestia, on which burned a perpetual flame Pseudo-dipteros A dipteral temple without the inner row of columns Pteron A row of columns surrounding a Greek temple Pulpitum A platform of boards, a stage Back to Top Q Quadriga Four-horsed chariot Back to Top R Rhyton A one-handled cup shaped like an animal’s head Back to Top S Satrap Governor of a Persian province Satyr Follower of Dionysus, usually depicted as half-animal, half-human with tail, hooves and permanently erect phallus Scaenae froxis Elaborately ornamented front of the stage-building in a theatre Shaft The body of a column between the base and capital Silenus An old satyr, the son of Pan or Hermes and a nymph, who reared Dionysus. Usually depicted as a grotesque, fat, drunken old man precariously balanced on the back of a donkey Sima The gutter of a building Skene The stage building of a Roman theatre (Latin: Scaenium) Skyphos A deep cup with two, usually horizontal, handles Socle Projecting part of a base or pedestal Soffit The lower surface of an architectural element Spina Barrier in the centre of a Roman amphitheatre Stadium Long building in which foot-races and other athletic contests were held Stater A gold, silver or electrum coin of ancient Greece Stathmos Quarters for travellers or soldiers Stele Narrow stone slab set upright bearing writing or a decoration. Often used as a grave stone or marker Stoa A porch or portico not attached to a larger building (see also colonnade and portico) Strategos Commander of an army, a general Strigil An instrument used for scraping the skin after a bath Stylobate The top step of a crepidoma Sympolity A federal union of cities or states, a confederation Synoecism The union of several cities or towns under one capital city Synthronon Semicircular bench or benches for the clergy in the apse or in rows on either side of the bema Back to Top T Tabula ansata Decorative panel Temenos A sacred enclosure Temple-in-antis Simple building in which the side walls were extended to form a porch. This had two columns between the antae Tetrastoon A square surrounded by four colonnades Theatron At first applied to the section of the theatre occupied by the audience, later extended to the whole building (from Greek word meaning ‘seeing place’. The latin uses the word auditorium, the ‘hearing place’) Theme A province (Byzantine) Theriomorphic Resembling mythical or real animals in art Tholos A circular building. Term sometimes applied to an underground beehive tomb Thyrsus Staff, wreathed with vine leaves and ivy and surmounted with a pine-cone, carried by Dionysus and his followers Torus A large convex moulding, e.g. at the base of a column Triconchos A building composed of three ‘conches’, i.e. of three semicircular niches surmounted by halfdomes Triglyph Part of a Doric frieze bearing three vertical grooves, which alternated with the metopes Triskele Three legs radiating from a common centre Tyche The deified personification of chance or fortune Tyxnpanon (tympanum) The area enclosed by the mouldings of a pediment Trireme A Greek galley rowed by three banks of oars Back to Top V Velum Canvas used to protect spectators in the auditorium of a Roman theatre from the sun Vomitorium covered exit in a Roman theatre Back to Top X Xoanon a primitive wooden cult statue or idol, frequently believed to have fallen from heaven
  2. In 330 AD, Constantine I allowed Christianity to be practiced publicly, dedicated Constantinople as the capital of the Empire, and rebuilt the city splendidly. Constantinople itself was not only the new capital of the Empire but was also the symbol of Christian triumph.
  3. The Celsus library of Ephesus was the third largest in the ancient world holding approximately 12,000 scrolls.

    © Natalie Sayin / Turkish Travel Blog

  4. NatalieSayin

    Temple Of Apollo Didyma

    Inside the main section of the temple of Apollo - http://turkishtravelblog.com/temple-of-apollo/
  5. Inside the Temple of Apollo in Altinkum
  6. The temple was connected to the ancient city of Miletus via a long paved road known these days as the sacred route. Construction was never fully completed but some historians have said that if it had been, the Temple of Apollo would have rivaled the Delhi in Greece. Read more here - http://turkishtravelblog.com/temple-of-apollo/
  7. It dates from Ancient Greek times and is located at the entrance to the resort. You won’t need for a full day to explore it, and it would be wise not to go midday when the sun is blaring. If you have already seen Ephesus in Selcuk, the Temple Of Apollo pails in comparison however it is still worth a visit. Read more here - http://turkishtravelblog.com/temple-of-apollo/

    © Natalie Sayin

  8. The Temple Of Apollo in Didyma, Turkey is a major landmark for the surrounding touristic resorts of Altinkum and Didim. It is on the Aegean coast and receives thousands of travelers and tourists every year. In historic times the area was referred to as Didyma and even today signs of Greek history are everywhere. Read more here - http://turkishtravelblog.com/temple-of-apollo/

    © Natalie Sayin

  9. http://www.turkeycentral.com/gallery/album/609-turkey/ Last summer,2012, my husband and I, were trekking in Turkey. We followed the turquoise coast, which is totally stunning, and walked the Lycian Way over a well marked mountain path, through small hamlets, untouched by time. Although many people have walked these paths you cannot help feel you are on a great exploration. One day, while on a provision stop in a small town called Kinik, which also is of great interest. Xanthos is situated above the town and dates back to 1,200 B.C. with history around every corner. We stopped to drink cay (tea to you and me) in a small lokanta, and got talking to the owner, who spoke good English. He saw we were walkers and told us of an English couple who had a fruit farm in the Xanthos valley. He had their contact details, because he had helped them buy some turkey chicks (birds, not women!). At this point in our fantastic journey we were looking for a place to stay for a few nights rest. After a brief phone call, Simon & Michelle came to collect us from the lokanta and took us to their farm. It takes your breath away! It looks over Saklikent Gorge and the white mountains. They had their own tents and we camped amongst apple and peach orchards, which we were free to pick and eat. It was quiet solitude. Paradise! Our alarm clock in the morning was 'Gengis' the cockerel. Fresh eggs from the chickens and turkeys for breakfast were absolutely delicious! We had a great time and wish we could have stayed longer. Simon & Michelle couldn't do enough to help. We intend to go back this year and I'd recommend it to anyone. either to use as a base, or for a longer stay!The farm is aptly named 'Eden Lodge'. They don't advertise, but keep busy by word of mouth! If anybody else is interested, then they can be contacted on [email protected] , but don't tell too many people, as I wouldn't want the tranquility spoiled.
  10. History of Alanya There are magnificent monuments in the citadel of Alanya, which is the nominee for Unesco Cultural Heritage of the world. Along with the monuments such as the walls, Kızılkule, the dockyard and the gun house, old houses of Alanya inhabited after having been restored are also protected and they are worth visiting. In some of the houses weaving is continued with old looms and meal is served in their gardens. If you look carefully at the citadel, a heritage from the medieval times, while visiting, you will notice some stone carvings dating back to the antiquity. Visiting the citadel of Alanya in details may take you a whole day. There are many fortresses to protect them, since Alanya was a city on the route of the historical Silk Road. The Citadel of Alanya The Citadel of Alanya, the walls of which are nearly 6.5 kilometres long, is on a peninsula whose height is up to 250 metres from the sea level. Although the settlement on Alanya peninsula, also known as Kandeleri, dates back to the Hellenistic Era, its cultural characteristics that can be seen today are thanks to Selcuks of the 13th century. The citadel was constructed on the demand of the Sultan of Selcuks, Alaaddin Keykubat, who conquered and had the city rebuilt in 1221. The citadel has 83 towers and 140 bastions. Nearly 400 cisterns were built to supply the city surrounded by walks in the medieval times with water. Some of the cisterns are still used today. The walls were built in a well-planned manner; downwards to Ehmedek.
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