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  1. I am going to travel to Turkey with my family to enjoy a Holiday, What location I can visit in order to experience some historical and archaeological sites. We are planning to visit Pamukkale as well is there any of the places that this kind of wonder’s.
  2. Click on one of the letters below to get to the word you're looking for. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V X A Abacus The upper member of a capital Acropolis Fortified hilltop. Citadel of a city Acroterion (acroterium) Statues or ornaments at the apex and inner corners of a pediment Adyton Inner sanctuary of a temple Aegis Cuirass or shield with Gorgon’s head and ring of snakes Agora Public square or market-place Alytarch An official charged with producing games in honour of the emperor Amazonomachia Combat between Greeks and Amazons Ambo Pulpit in a Christian basilica; facing pulpits in a church from which the epistle and gospel were read Amphitheatre An elliptical or circular space surrounded by seats arranged in tiers; used by the Romans for gladiatorial contests Amphora Two-handled container for wine or water Analemma Supporting wall at the side of a theatre Anastylosis Reconstruction Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu) from the poetic Greek, ‘the land of the rising sun’, ‘the East’, the land that today makes up the Asiatic part of Turkey Andron Men’s apartment, banqueting-hall Anta Projecting pilasters ending the lateral walls of the ceila of a Greek temple Antefix Ornament on the eave or cornice of a building; a feature used to hide the end of the tiles Athemion Flower ornament Apotropaion A protective symbol to turn away evil Apse A semicircular recess in a wall, especially in a church or in a Roman law-court Architrave A lintel or main beam resting on columns. The lowest member of the entablature. The same as an Epistyle. Arcosolium Burial niche Ashlar (Masonry) square cut stones and masonry constructed of these Astragal A moulding at the top or base of a column Atlantes Columns in the form of male figures Atrium The court of a Roman house, roofed at the sides, but exposed to the sky in the centre; the entrance to a Byzantine church Back to Top B Baetyl A sacred meteoric stone Ballista War machine which catapulted large stones; used to break down defensive walls Bas-relief Low relief sculpture on a marble or stone slab Basilica A Roman public hall; a building with a central hall and side halls which were lower in height; a Christian church of this type Bema Rostrum or a raised section of the chancel of a Byzantine church Boule City council Bouleuterion Meeting-place of the Boule, the legislative council of a city. The city hall Buchranium Sculptured ox skull, usually garlanded Back to Top C Cadticeus The wand carried by Mercury, usually represented with two snakes twined around it Caique Small wooden trading-vessel frequently found in Greek and Eastern Mediterranean waters Cantharus Drinking-cup with two vertical handles Capital The topmost part of column Caryatid Column in the form of a female figure Cavea The auditorium of a theatre; name derived from the tact that originally it was dug out of a hill Cella The great hall of a temple which contained the cult statue Chiton A tunic worn short by men and long by women Chlamys Light cloak worn by ephebes Chthonic Dwelling in or under the ground Cippus A small column, sometimes without a base or capital, bearing an inscription. Used as a landmark or a funeral monument. Clepsydra A water-clock Colonnade (See also stoa and portico), a row of columns which supports an entablature Columnae caelatae Sculptured columns Composite capital Corinthian capital with Ionic volutes, which are slightly reduced in size Conventus Provincial court of justice Cornice The upper member of the entablature Crepidoma The stepped platform on which a temple stood Cuneiform Wedge-shaped characters of ancient Persian and Assyrian inscriptions Cuneus Wedge-shaped division in the cavea of a theatre Cybele The ancient mother-goddess of Anatolia. Cyclopean masonry Masonry composed of enourmus, irregular shaped stones laid out without mortar and not in courses. Stones were so large that ancient people who saw them believed that only a Cyclops could have put them into place. Cyclopean Wall A wall composed of cyclopean masonry. Back to Top D Deisis Representation of Christ flanked by the Blessed Virgin and St John Deme A village Demiourgos (demiourgis) A civic magistrate Demos The people of a land or city Dentil Row of small square blocks, part of the decorative series on a cornice Dexiosis Scene Offering of the right hand, e.g. a Commagene king and Hercules at Nemrut Dağı Diadochos Plural: Diadochoi. A successor of Alexander the Great Diazoma A horizontal passage in the cavea of a theatre. Dipteros A temple surrounded by two rows of columns Dormition Scene showing the death of the Virgin Dromos A long narrow entrance to a building, sometimes lined with columns or statues. Passage giving access to a tholos or beehive tomb Back to Top E Egg-and-tongue or egg-and-dart A moulding of alternate eggs and arrowheads Engaged column Partly detached column Entablature The stonework resting on a row of columns, including architrave, frieze and cornice Ephebus Greek youth of 18 or over, usually undergoing training either in the army or at a university Epistyle (Greek), architrave Epistyle Architrave Erotes Figures of Eros, the god of love Exedra Semicircular recess, usually with a seat, in a Classical or Byzantine building Exonarthex In a Byzantine church, a transverse vestibule preceding the façade Back to Top F Fibula A clasp, buckle or brooch Flutes The vertical channels cut into the sides of columns Forum Roman market-place Frieze The middle member of the entablature Back to Top G Gallus Priest of Cybele and Attis who had castrated himself Geison (Greek) cornice Gigantomachia War of or with giants Gymnasiarch Superintendent of the palaestra who paid the trainers, etc Back to Top H Herin Quadrangular pillar usually adorned with an erect phallus and surmounted by a bust Heroon Shrine or temple dedicated to a demigod or deified hero Hieron Temple or sacred enclosure Hierothesion Funerary sanctuary Himation An oblong cloak thrown over the left shoulder and fastened over or under the right Hippodrome A place for horse- or chariot-races Hoplite Heavily armed foot-soldier Hydra Jar for carrying water Hypogeum Underground room or vault Back to Top I Iconostasis Screen bearing icons in a Greek Orthodox church Impluvium Basin in the centre of the atrium of a Roman house which was filled with water from the roof In antis With columns between the antae Insula Detached house or block of houses Isodomic A term applied to masonry laid in courses of equal height Back to Top K Kantharus Wine-cup with two large curving handles, usually associated with Dionysus Karum Assyrian trading colony Katholikos Patriarch of Armenia Kline Couch, bed or bier Komast A reveller; often depicted singing or dancing at or following a symposium Kore Maiden. Archaic female figure Kouros Boy. Archaic male figure Kylix Shallow wine-cup Back to Top L Labrys A double-axe; religious symbol of great antiquity Lekythos A bottle for containing oil Back to Top M Macellum Provision market where flesh, fish and vegetables were sold Maenad Bacchante. From the Greek Mandorla Almond-shaped aureole which signifies divinity Martyrion Shrine of a martyr Megabyxus Chief priest of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Megale Meter Cybele, the Mother Goddess of Asia Minor Megaron Large hall of a palace or house Metope Plain rectangular panel in a Doric frieze, which was replaced in the Classical period by a sculptured relief Back to Top N Naiskos Cella of modest proportions in a Greek temple Naos A temple or sometimes the cella of a temple Narthex Narrow vestibule along the west side of a church Naumachia A mock naval battle staged in a flooded amphitheatre Neocorus Title borne by a city which possessed a temple dedicated to the imperial cult Nereids The daughters of Nereus, the Old Man of the Sea Nike The personification of victory Nymphaeum Literally, ‘Temple of the Nymphs’, an ornamental fountain with statues Back to Top O Odeum (Odeion) Small building with semicircular seating used for concerts and meetings Oikos A house Oinochoe Wine-jug Omphalos A sacred stone commemorating the centre of the earth where the eagles of Zeus met Opisthodomus The porch at the rear of a temple which was sometimes used to store valuables Orchestra Large circular space occupied by the chorus and actors in Greek theatres Orthostats Upright slabs at the base of a wall Ostothek Funerary urn Back to Top P Palaestra Training area for wrestlers, boxers, etc. Pancration Athletic contest involving wrestling and boxing; everything except biting or gouging of eyes was permitted Parodos Space between the cavea and the stage of a theatre Pediment A low-pitched gable above a portico Pelike Amphora with a wide mouth and pear-shaped outline Peplos A mantle in one piece worn draped by women Periblos A precinct or the circuit around it Periplous A sailing guide Peripteros A temple surrounded by a row of columns Peristasis A row of columns surrounding a temple Peristyle A row or rows of columns surrounding a building or open court Petasus Broad-brimmed hat worn by an ephebe Phiale Saucer or bowl Pilaster, shallow pier or column projecting from a wall Pithos Large earthenware jar used for storing oil, grain, etc. Plinth A square block forming the base of a column Podium A platform, also a low wall or continuous pedestal carrying a colonnade Polos Stiff high hat Portico A stoa or colonnade Portolano Sailing directions Prohedria Special seat in a theatre reserved for an important person Pronaos The porch in front of a temple Propylon Entrance gate to a temenos (plural: propylaia). Proskenion (Latin: Proscaenium), a raised platform in front of the stage-building used by the actors in a Roman theatre Prostylos A building with free-standing columns in a row Prothesis Laying out of a corpse Prutaneis Member of the executive committee of the Boule Prytaneion (Prytanaeum) The administrative building in a city. This contained an altar dedicated to Hestia, on which burned a perpetual flame Pseudo-dipteros A dipteral temple without the inner row of columns Pteron A row of columns surrounding a Greek temple Pulpitum A platform of boards, a stage Back to Top Q Quadriga Four-horsed chariot Back to Top R Rhyton A one-handled cup shaped like an animal’s head Back to Top S Satrap Governor of a Persian province Satyr Follower of Dionysus, usually depicted as half-animal, half-human with tail, hooves and permanently erect phallus Scaenae froxis Elaborately ornamented front of the stage-building in a theatre Shaft The body of a column between the base and capital Silenus An old satyr, the son of Pan or Hermes and a nymph, who reared Dionysus. Usually depicted as a grotesque, fat, drunken old man precariously balanced on the back of a donkey Sima The gutter of a building Skene The stage building of a Roman theatre (Latin: Scaenium) Skyphos A deep cup with two, usually horizontal, handles Socle Projecting part of a base or pedestal Soffit The lower surface of an architectural element Spina Barrier in the centre of a Roman amphitheatre Stadium Long building in which foot-races and other athletic contests were held Stater A gold, silver or electrum coin of ancient Greece Stathmos Quarters for travellers or soldiers Stele Narrow stone slab set upright bearing writing or a decoration. Often used as a grave stone or marker Stoa A porch or portico not attached to a larger building (see also colonnade and portico) Strategos Commander of an army, a general Strigil An instrument used for scraping the skin after a bath Stylobate The top step of a crepidoma Sympolity A federal union of cities or states, a confederation Synoecism The union of several cities or towns under one capital city Synthronon Semicircular bench or benches for the clergy in the apse or in rows on either side of the bema Back to Top T Tabula ansata Decorative panel Temenos A sacred enclosure Temple-in-antis Simple building in which the side walls were extended to form a porch. This had two columns between the antae Tetrastoon A square surrounded by four colonnades Theatron At first applied to the section of the theatre occupied by the audience, later extended to the whole building (from Greek word meaning ‘seeing place’. The latin uses the word auditorium, the ‘hearing place’) Theme A province (Byzantine) Theriomorphic Resembling mythical or real animals in art Tholos A circular building. Term sometimes applied to an underground beehive tomb Thyrsus Staff, wreathed with vine leaves and ivy and surmounted with a pine-cone, carried by Dionysus and his followers Torus A large convex moulding, e.g. at the base of a column Triconchos A building composed of three ‘conches’, i.e. of three semicircular niches surmounted by halfdomes Triglyph Part of a Doric frieze bearing three vertical grooves, which alternated with the metopes Triskele Three legs radiating from a common centre Tyche The deified personification of chance or fortune Tyxnpanon (tympanum) The area enclosed by the mouldings of a pediment Trireme A Greek galley rowed by three banks of oars Back to Top V Velum Canvas used to protect spectators in the auditorium of a Roman theatre from the sun Vomitorium covered exit in a Roman theatre Back to Top X Xoanon a primitive wooden cult statue or idol, frequently believed to have fallen from heaven
  3. What could be considered an ancient motivational meme which reads "be cheerful, live your life" in ancient Greek has been discovered on a centuries-old mosaic found during excavation works in the southern province of Hatay. Demet Kara, an archaeologist from the Hatay Archaeology Museum, said the mosaic, which was called the “skeleton mosaic,” belonged to the dining room of a house from the 3rd century B.C., as new findings have been unearthed in the ancient city of Antiocheia. "There are three scenes on glass mosaics made of black tiles. Two things are very important among the elite class in the Roman period in terms of social activities: The first is the bath and the second is dinner. In the first scene, a black person throws fire. That symbolizes the bath. In the middle scene, there is a sundial and a young clothed man running towards it with a bare-headed butler behind. The sundial is between 9 p.m. and 10 p.m. 9 p.m. is the bath time in the Roman period. He has to arrive at supper at 10 p.m. Unless he can, it is not well received. There is writing on the scene that reads he is late for supper and writing about time on the other. In the last scene, there is a reckless skeleton with a drinking pot in his hand along with bread and a wine pot. The writing on it reads 'be cheerful and live your life,'" Kara explained. Kara added the mosaic was a unique finding for the country. "[This is] a unique mosaic in Turkey. There is a similar mosaic in Italy but this one is much more comprehensive. It is important for the fact that it dates back to the 3rd century B.C.," Kara said. She also said that Antiocheia was the world’s third largest city in the Roman era, and continued: "Antiocheia was a very important, rich city. There were mosaic schools and mints in the city. The ancient city of Zeugma in [the southeastern province of] Gaziantep might have been established by people who were trained here. Antiocheia mosaics are world famous." Source: Hurriyet Daily News
  4. New research suggests that the majority of the world’s modern Jewish population is descended mainly from people from ancient Turkey, rather than predominantly from elsewhere in the Middle East. The new research suggests that most of the Jewish population of northern and eastern Europe – normally known as Ashkenazic Jews – are the descendants of Greeks, Iranians and others who colonized what is now northern Turkey more than 2000 years ago and were then converted to Judaism, probably in the first few centuries AD by Jews from Persia. At that stage, the Persian Empire was home to the world’s largest Jewish communities. According to research carried out by the geneticist, Dr Eran Elhaik of the University of Sheffield, over 90 per cent of Ashkenazic ancestors come from that converted partially Greek-originating ancient community in north-east Turkey. His research is based on genetic, historical and place-name evidence. For his geographic genetic research, Dr Elhaik used a Geographic Population Structure computer modelling system to convert Ashkenazic Jewish DNA data into geographical information. Dr Elhaik, an Israeli-born geneticist who gained his doctorate in molecular evolution from the University of Houston, believes that three still-surviving Turkish villages – Iskenaz, Eskenaz and Ashanaz – on the western part of an ancient Silk Road route were part of the original Ashkenazic homeland. He believes that the word Ashkenaz originally comes from Ashguza - the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian name for the Iron Age Eurasian steppeland people, the Scythians. Referring to the names of the three Turkish villages, Dr Elhaik points out that “north-east Turkey is the only place in the world where these place-names exist”. From the 690s AD onwards, anti-Jewish persecution by the Christian Byzantine Empire seems to have played a part in forcing large numbers of Jews to flee across the Black Sea to a more friendly state – the Turkic-ruled Khazar Empire with its large Slav and other populations. Some analyses of Yiddish suggests that it was originally a Slavic language, and Dr Elhaik and others believe that it was developed, probably in the 8th and 9th centuries AD, by Jewish merchants trading along some of the more northerly Silk Roads linking China and Europe. By the 730s, the Khazar Empire had begun to convert to Judaism – and more people converted to the faith. But when the Khazar Empire declined in or around the 11th century, some of the Jewish population almost certainly migrated west into Central Europe. There, as Yiddish-speaking Jewish merchants came into contact with central European, often German-speaking, peoples, they began to replace the Slav words in Yiddish with large numbers of German and German-derived words, while retaining some of its Slav-originating grammar. Many Hebrew words also appear to have been added by that stage. The genetic modelling used in the research was based on DNA data from 367 Jews of northern and eastern European origin and more than 600 non-Jewish people mainly from Europe and western Asia. Dr Elhaik says it is the largest genomic study ever carried out on Ashkenazic Jews. His research will be published in the UK-based scientific journal, Genome Biology and Evolution. Further research is planned to try to measure the precise size of the Semitic genetic input into Jewish and non-Jewish genomes. Source: Independent
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