The summary of the grammar points that I tried to explain in the first part is, for basicaly two functions you can use the letters ı,i,u, and ü, (I will use 'I' to mean any of them): When the direct object of the verb needs 'I' at the end, and only if the direct object in question is something that normally we use with 'the' in English, like in 'Bana kırmızı domates+i ver' : Give me the red tomato. Note that the red tomato is the direct object of the verb to give, while 'me' is the indirect object. If I say 'Give it to me' the indirect relation will be more open with the use of 'to me'.
Now I want to draw attention to another function of these letters; though this can be considered under another grammatical title, the basic concept is again to make something 'definite'.
We can take two or more words and make a compound : High school. Sometimes these words make one single word, like sociology and cannot be separated any more. There are many words of this type in Turkish: Kadıköy,a town of İstanbul, which is actually the 'village of kadı' (old time judge), with the suffixes that got lost in the process of language (kadının köyü, or kadı köyü). Some other can be put together and separated any time you like: Demiryolu : Iron + road(railway). Demiryolu has new meaning other than iron and way, but it is still possible to divide it into original two words, unlike kadıköy.
Some compounds can be made with two nouns, and some with an adjective and a noun. When they are made of an adjective and and a noun, we dont need to worry about suffixes.Now please compare the following examples, the second ones are made of two nouns: A green room: Yeşil bir oda. Bedroom: Yatak odası. A broken heart: Kırık bir kalp. Human heart: İnsan kalbi (kalp+i). A slow rate: Düşük bir oran/hız. Production rate: Üretim oranı/hızı (oran+ı or hız+ı). A narrow road: Dar bir yol. Railway (iron road) demiryolu. An old frame: Eski bir çerçeve. Picture frame: Resim çerçevesi.
In the last example we see an 's' added between çerçeve and 'i'. If we make a compound with two nouns, and if the second nound ends with a vowel, what we need in between this vowel and 'I' is the letter 's', like in:
Çocuk bahçesi (çocuk: child, or children as a group noun).Mücevher kutusu (jewelery box). Yaban elması (apple growing in wild). Aşk hikayesi (love story).
As you probably notice, all these endings are vowels.So what shall we do when another vowel should be added like i,ı,u, ü, or, e or a?. In this case, 'n' is what we need: Give me the jewellery box: Mücevher kutusu+n+u ver.
Here, the 'u' at the end is the usual suffix which tells us that it is something definite and the direct object as well. 'Don't break the human heart: İnsan kalbini kırma (kalbi+n+i). Don't go to the swimming pool: Yüzme havuzu+n+a gitme(havuz: pool. Yüzme havuzu is a compound of two nouns). Don't tell me this love story again: Bana bu aşk hikayesi+n+i bir daha anlatma.
Further details will follow...
Some Basic Points I I
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